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 A. Introduction

The state of Oklahoma occupies a peculiar place in the history of the American Civil War. Not quite a state at the time of the conflict, Indian Territory was divided between Native American tribes loyal to both the Union and the Confederacy. Many Native Americans, upset that Union forces had abandoned all military posts in Indian Territory (a violation of previous treaty agreements), opted to side with the Confederacy in order to protect their homelands. The decision by many tribes to side with the Confederacy proved a devastating one, as all treaties made by the Five Civilized tribes prior to the conflict were deemed null and void as a punishment for hostility towards the Union. Indian Territory saw a number of military engagements and produced many noteworthy soldiers, including Stand Watie who was the last Confederate general to surrender to Union forces.

 B. Subject Headings and Shelf Numbers

  • Indians of North America --History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
  • Indian Territory--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
  • Watie, Stand, 1806-1871.
  • Oklahoma --History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
  • Browse Call Numbers 970.00497, 973.7 - 973.8

 C. Frequently Mentioned Texts

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Stand Watie and the Agony of the Cherokee Nation by Kenny Arthur Franks
Rifles For Watie by Harold Keith
General Stand Watie's Confederate Indians by Frank Cunningham
Oklahoma : A History of Five Centuries 2nd Edition by Arrell Morgan Gibson
The American Indian in the Civil War by Annie Eloise Abel
Now the Wolf Has Come: the Creek Nation in the Civil War by Christine Schultz White
The American Indian As Slaveholder And Secessionist by Annie Eloise Abel

 D. General References, e.g. Guides, Encyclopedia, or Dictionaries

Between Two Fires: American Indians During The Civil War by Lawrence M. Hauptman
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Cherokee Cavaliers by Edward Everett Dale
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Okla Hannali by R.A. Lafferty
Brilliant Victory: The Second Civil War Battle of Cabin Creek, Indian Territory, September 19th, 1864 by Steven L. Warren
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Battle of Cabin Creek, September 18, 19, 1864, called 2nd Battle of Cabin Creek, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory by Jess C. Epple

 E. Magazines or Newspapers

The Library System has a subscription to the EbscoHost database that you may use either from home or in the library to search for magazine articles about research papers. Use the following search terms:

    • Civil War in Indian Territory
    • Stand Watie
    • Cherokee Soldiers
    • Battle of Cabin Creek

 F. Internet Resources

 H. For Further Research

  • Oklahoma Historical Society 2100 Lincoln Boulevard Oklahoma City , OK 73105 405.521.2491
Prepared by G. Garloch
Updated March 2013